Thursday, 30 October 2014

How to Update a Bank Account for Google AdSense

You can't update your Google AdSense bank accounts -- only add new ones.
You can't update your Google AdSense bank accounts -- only add new ones.
Google AdSense is a contextual ad service which displays relevant ads on your website. AdSense supports EFT (electronic fund transfer), meaning that they can deposit the revenue you earn through the program directly into your bank account. If your account details have changed and you want your revenue to go to a different account, you must register a new bank account, as old account details cannot be edited or updated, even by AdSense support staff.
STEP 1
Go to the AdSense site and log in. Click “Payments” from the “Overview” menu and then click “Payment settings.”

STEP 2

Select “Add a new bank account” next to the “Available forms of payment” header and then enter all of your bank account details into the fields provided. Note that you will need to enter the bank account holder's name exactly as it appears on the account. When you have entered all the details, click the “Make this my selection for future payments” check box and then click “Save.”

STEP 3

Check your bank account regularly over the next 10 days. AdSense will make a test deposit of $0.15-$1.10 into your account, which you will use to verify that you are the owner of the account. When you see the test deposit, make a note of the amount.

STEP 4

Go back to the AdSense “Payment settings” screen and then click “Verify this account.” Enter the amount of your test deposit into the text field and then click “Next.” Upon receiving the correct test deposit amount, AdSense will approve your new account. Click the new account to set it as your default payment method.

Wednesday, 29 October 2014

Ebola

Ebola Virus

Ebola virus can cause a deadly disease which can be contracted by touching the skin of a person infected with the virus. Knowing how the virus spreads can help you in undertaking measures that will keep you safe from contracting it.

There is increased skepticism in the world at the moment that Ebola Virus might reach other places and may not remain confined to West Africa. These alarms have peaked since the upsurge in the victims of Ebola virus in the West African nation of Guinea. The virus started with only a few cases in March but has caught more victims now. The total number of victims of the virus has now increased to 909 established cases and some 414 additional cases where presence of the virus is being feared.
The patients of the virus are present in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria in addition to the Guinea where the outbreak started. 

What Is Ebola Virus?

The Ebola virus which is feared to spread from West Africa to other parts of the world came to be known in 1976. It has been named after River Ebola which flows through the country where it was first found in Democratic Republic of Congo. The virus has been known to break out a few times since its discovery. However, every time it has not affected anyone outside the West African region.
The Ebola virus causes a disease which is called Ebola hemorrhagic fever which is simply also known as the Ebola disease. The disease caused by the Ebola virus has often led to the death of the patient. Apart from affecting humans, the disease also affects monkey and gorillas. The body’s immune system and important organs are harmed by the spread of the disease through the body. Blood’s platelets count also gets significantly dropped which results in unrestrained bleeding.
In addition to being found in Africa, the virus has also been known to exist in Philippines. However, the strain of the virus present in Philippines does not affect humans.

What Are the Types of Ebola Virus?

The Ebola virus which causes the rare yet fatal Ebola disease can be classified into 5 types. The types are Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Ivory Coast, Ebola-Reston, Ebola-Sudan and Ebola-Bundibugyo. Among these 5 types of the virus, only Ebola-Reston is known to not result in a disease in humans. This is the only class of virus which is also present in Philippines. The rest of the types of Ebola only exist in Africa.

How Can You Contract Ebola Virus?

Natural Ebola Virus Host

Fruit bats are the natural carriers of the Ebola Virus. This is the reason the presence of the virus coincides with the geographical area in which fruit bats are found. Even among the fruit bats, certain species are more naturally suited to be the host of the virus. These include Myonycteris torquata, Genera Hypsignathus Monstrosus and Epompos Franqueti.

How Does It Spread Among People?

Ebola virus can spread among people through the blood, organs and body fluids of a person infected by the Ebola virus. A person can get the virus if he comes into contact with any of the above mentioned things of an infected person. Most of the people who contract the virus are mostly caregivers of the person infected by Ebola virus. They get the infection mostly while washing the urine, vomit or stool of the person especially if they contain blood. Touching the body of the infected person can also result in transmission of the virus.
The rituals of burial in certain African cultures have also been responsible for the virus spreading in certain cases. The reason for this is the fact that certain rituals in Africa involve people attending the funeral touching the dead body. Since the virus has been known to survive for a number of days outside the body, it also remains on the skin of the person who is infected by it. Once a person attending the funeral of an infected person touches the dead body’s skin, all that remains for the transmission of the virus is for him to touch his mouth. This will also infect him with the Ebola virus. Following are certain additional ways of contracting the virus:
  • A person touching his mouth after getting into contact with the soiled clothing of a person with Ebola disease.
  • Having unprotected sex with a person with the Ebola virus. The virus remains for up to seven weeks in the semen of the infected person even after he has recovered.
  • Touching medical equipment and needles used to treat a person with Ebola virus.
Ebola virus is not like flu in the sense that it does not spread like common cold through air. Only close physical contact with a patient of Ebola disease causes the virus to spread. Moreover, normal social contact with a person who has no visible signs of the disease also does not result in the disease getting transmitted. Blood, urine, stool or other body fluids can contain the virus long after a person has recovered from Ebola. Therefore a person can end up transmitting the disease to others as long as the virus remains in his body fluids.

Risk Factors of Being Infected with Ebola Virus

The following are some of the instances in which a person’s chances of getting infected with Ebola virus increase:
  • ŸVisiting Africa
People visiting Africa or a country, where Ebola virus outbreaks have occurred are at a high risk of contracting this virus.
  • ŸAnimal Researchers
Animal researchers who are conducting research on animals that have been brought in from the Philippines or African countries are more likely to get infected with Ebola virus.
  • ŸMedical Care Providers
People providing medical care to the patients of the Ebola virus like doctors, nurses and family members can contract the disease if they do not use protective equipment.
  • ŸBurial Helpers
People offering help in preparing the bodies of those who have died of Ebola virus for burial are also at an increased risk of developing this disease.

Are There Any Vaccines Against Ebola Virus?

At present, there are no vaccines available for EVD. Research is being done on many possible vaccines but all of them are currently in the testing phase.
Since the patients of this disease get dehydrated pretty quickly, they have to be rehydrated orally with electrolytic solutions or fluids passed through an IV.
Even though several new medications are being tested, right now there is no treatment method available for this disease. 

How to Prevent Ebola Virus Infection

Since there is still not much known about this disease, no vaccine has been developed for it and only a handful prevention measures have been identified.
Hospitals and healthcare facilities are prime locations for the spreading of the disease thus, it is necessary that the medical staff working there are aware of the techniques of barrier nursing and is able to detect the symptoms of the virus quickly. The healthcare workers must remain ready to run tests and send blood samples of the patients to other locations for testing purposes.
Techniques for barrier nursing include usage of protective gear like masks and gloves, complete isolation of the patients of the disease, usage of disinfectants and sterilization of all the medical equipment on a frequent basis.
People who are travelling to countries where Ebola virus is known to exist must avoid contact with any body fluids or blood. They should stay away from hospitals that are treating Ebola patients and must not handle any equipment that might have been used by an Ebola patient.
Watch an easy-to-understand BBC News video which explains Ebola virus:

Ebola Virus

Ebola Virus




Key facts

  • Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans.
  • The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
  • The average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%. Case fatality rates have varied from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks.
  • The first EVD outbreaks occurred in remote villages in Central Africa, near tropical rainforests, but the most recent outbreak in west Africa has involved major urban as well as rural areas.
  • Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks. Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe burials and social mobilisation.
  • Early supportive care with rehydration, symptomatic treatment improves survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralise the virus but a range of blood, immunological and drug therapies are under development.
  • There are currently no licensed Ebola vaccines but 2 potential candidates are undergoing evaluation.

Background

The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. Ebola virus disease (EVD) first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.
The current outbreak in west Africa, (first cases notified in March 2014), is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976. There have been more cases and deaths in this outbreak than all others combined. It has also spread between countries starting in Guinea then spreading across land borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia, by air (1 traveller only) to Nigeria, and by land (1 traveller) to Senegal.
The most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources, having only recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability. On August 8, the WHO Director-General declared this outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.
A separate, unrelated Ebola outbreak began in Boende, Equateur, an isolated part of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The virus family Filoviridae includes 3 genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. There are 5 species that have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. The first 3, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, and Sudan ebolavirus have been associated with large outbreaks in Africa. The virus causing the 2014 west African outbreak belongs to the Zaire species.

Transmission

It is thought that fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are natural Ebola virus hosts. Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest.
Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials (e.g. bedding, clothing) contaminated with these fluids.
Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This has occurred through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced.
Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person can also play a role in the transmission of Ebola.
People remain infectious as long as their blood and body fluids, including semen and breast milk, contain the virus. Men who have recovered from the disease can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery from illness.

Symptoms of Ebola virus disease

The incubation period, that is, the time interval from infection with the virus to onset of symptoms is 2 to 21 days. Humans are not infectious until they develop symptoms. First symptoms are the sudden onset of fever fatigue, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, symptoms of impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding (e.g. oozing from the gums, blood in the stools). Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes.

Diagnosis

It can be difficult to distinguish EVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis. Confirmation that symptoms are caused by Ebola virus infection are made using the following investigations:
  • antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • antigen-capture detection tests
  • serum neutralization test
  • reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
  • electron microscopy
  • virus isolation by cell culture.
Samples from patients are an extreme biohazard risk; laboratory testing on non-inactivated samples should be conducted under maximum biological containment conditions.

Treatment and vaccines

Supportive care-rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids- and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD. However, a range of potential treatments including blood products, immune therapies and drug therapies are currently being evaluated. No licensed vaccines are available yet, but 2 potential vaccines are undergoing human safety testing.

Prevention and control

Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe burials and social mobilisation. Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks. Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission. Risk reduction messaging should focus on several factors:
  • Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human transmission from contact with infected fruit bats or monkeys/apes and the consumption of their raw meat. Animals should be handled with gloves and other appropriate protective clothing. Animal products (blood and meat) should be thoroughly cooked before consumption.
  • Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission from direct or close contact with people with Ebola symptoms, particularly with their bodily fluids. Gloves and appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill patients at home. Regular hand washing is required after visiting patients in hospital, as well as after taking care of patients at home.
  • Outbreak containment measures including prompt and safe burial of the dead, identifying people who may have been in contact with someone infected with Ebola, monitoring the health of contacts for 21 days, the importance of separating the healthy from the sick to prevent further spread, the importance of good hygiene and maintaining a clean environment.

Controlling infection in health-care settings:

Health-care workers should always take standard precautions when caring for patients, regardless of their presumed diagnosis. These include basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (to block splashes or other contact with infected materials), safe injection practices and safe burial practices.
Health-care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should apply extra infection control measures to prevent contact with the patient’s blood and body fluids and contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothing and bedding. When in close contact (within 1 metre) of patients with EBV, health-care workers should wear face protection (a face shield or a medical mask and goggles), a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown, and gloves (sterile gloves for some procedures).
Laboratory workers are also at risk. Samples taken from humans and animals for investigation of Ebola infection should be handled by trained staff and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.

WHO response

WHO aims to prevent Ebola outbreaks by maintaining surveillance for Ebola virus disease and supporting at-risk countries to developed preparedness plans. The document provides overall guidance for control of Ebola and Marburg virus outbreaks:
When an outbreak is detected WHO responds by supporting surveillance, community engagement, case management, laboratory services, contact tracing, infection control, logistical support and training and assistance with safe burial practices.
WHO has developed detailed advice on Ebola infection prevention and control:

Table: Chronology of previous Ebola virus disease outbreaks


YearCountryEbolavirus speciesCasesDeathsCase fatality
2012Democratic Republic of CongoBundibugyo572951%
2012UgandaSudan7457%
2012UgandaSudan241771%
2011UgandaSudan11100%
2008Democratic Republic of CongoZaire321444%
2007UgandaBundibugyo1493725%
2007Democratic Republic of CongoZaire26418771%
2005CongoZaire121083%
2004SudanSudan17741%
2003 (Nov-Dec)CongoZaire352983%
2003 (Jan-Apr)CongoZaire14312890%
2001-2002CongoZaire594475%
2001-2002GabonZaire655382%
2000UgandaSudan42522453%
1996South Africa (ex-Gabon)Zaire11100%
1996 (Jul-Dec)GabonZaire604575%
1996 (Jan-Apr)GabonZaire312168%
1995Democratic Republic of CongoZaire31525481%
1994Cote d'IvoireTaï Forest100%
1994GabonZaire523160%
1979SudanSudan342265%
1977Democratic Republic of CongoZaire11100%
1976SudanSudan28415153%
1976Democratic Republic of CongoZaire31828088%