Tuesday, 31 May 2011

Tips for Quitting Tobacco

Tips for Quitting Tobacco

Getting Ready to Quit

• Set a date for quitting. If possible, have a friend quit smoking with you.

• Notice when and why you smoke. Try to find the things in your daily life that you often do while smoking (such as drinking your morning cup of coffee or driving a car).

• Change your smoking routines. Keep your cigarettes in a different place. Smoke with your other hand. Don't do anything else when smoking. /li>
• Smoke only in certain places, such as outdoors.

• When you want a cigarette, wait a few minutes. Try to think of something to do instead of smoking.

• Buy one pack of cigarettes at a time. Switch to a brand of cigarettes you don't like.

On the Day You Quit

• Get rid of all your cigarettes. Put away your ashtrays.

• Change your morning routine. When you eat breakfast, don't sit in the same place at the kitchen table. Stay busy.

• When you get the urge to smoke, do something else instead.

• Carry other things to put in your mouth, such as gum, hard candy or a toothpick.

• Reward yourself at the end of the day for not smoking. See a movie or go out and enjoy your favorite meal.

Keep Up the Good Work

• Don't worry if you are sleepier or more short-tempered than usual; these feelings will pass.

• Try to exercise. Take walks or ride a bike.

• Consider the positive things about quitting. A positive attitude will help you through the tough times.

• When you feel tense, try to keep busy.

• Eat regular meals. Feeling hungry is sometimes mistaken for the desire to smoke.

• Start a money jar with the money you save by not buying cigarettes.

• Let others know that you have quit smoking.. Most people will support you.

• If you slip and smoke, don't be discouraged. Many former smokers tried to stop several times before they finally succeeded. Quit again.

• If you need more help, see your doctor.

Monday, 30 May 2011

Dangers of Tobacco

Dangers of Tobacco

The following is a small list of dangers associated with tobacco !

Regardless of the tobacco product used, there is an increased risk of cancer, strokes and heart disease. Tobacco smoke that is inhaled causes lung cancer, sinus disease and chronic obstructive lung disease. Many pipe smokers state that they do not inhale, but research shows that they have a significant increase in risk of lung, larynx, throat, esophagus, pancreas, and colon-rectal cancers along with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and strokes.

Premature Wrinkling of Skin Tobacco use has been associated with premature aging and skin wrinkling. Before undergoing cosmetic surgery for wrinkles one should suspend tobacco use.

Nyunova, et al. (2009) found that smoking accelerates aging by damaging the same protein which is damaged in Werner's syndrome, a genetic disorder which causes premature aging.


If careless, cigarettes can cause life threatening fires. To the right is a picture of a patient who was smoking a cigarette while using home oxygen to treat his chronic obstructive lung disease. A fire and explosions ignited with extensive burns to the face and inside of the nose. A video of the patient's nasal endoscopy can be viewed below.


Over 90% of laryngeal cancers are caused by smoking.

Lung Cancer: Smoking causes 87% of all lung cancer cases.

Oral and Esophageal Cancer: The picture is from a 77 year old patient who had a 30 pack year history of smoking. He quite smoking 26 years ago. The picture shows a large pyriform sinus cancer. The pyriform sinus is located in the hypopharyngeal between the throat and the esophagus. The cancer can be seen eating into the patient's voice box.

Stomach Cancer: It has been estimated that 14 to 28% of stomach cancer deaths are caused by smoking.

Heart Disease, High Blood Pressure, and Stroke. Nicotine, the major drug in tobacco constricts blood vessels, increasing blood pressure and the work of the heart. Constricting blood vessels also decreases blood flow to the body's tissues, resulting in decreased healing. These effects are exacerbated by diseases such as diabetes.

Chronic Hoarseness and Laryngeal Polyps Chronic smokers often develop a persistent hoarse voice with edema of the larynx and formation of vocal cord polyps. Shown in the pictures below from left to right is a normal larynx, a larynx with massive vocal cord polyps (in a heavy smoker) and the same larynx after the polyps have been surgically removed.

Poor Sex Life: Smoking is a major factor in impotence. It is also a turnoff to the opposite sex. The following is a study taken in our local high-school.

Feldman A.H. et. al (Preventative Medicine 30(4):328-38, 2000) found that Cigarette smoking almost doubled the chances of developing moderate or complete erectile dysfunction. Exposure to passive smoke also significantly increased the incidence of erectile dysfunction.

Question: Do You Want Your Boy or Girl friend to Use Tobacco Products?
A total of 23 current tobacco users and 23 non-tobacco users were surveyed. No respondent answered "YES". There was no significant difference between tobacco users and non-users.

Smoke Yes 0 No 33 Don't Care 13
Chew Yes 0 No 40 Don't Care 5

Smoking and Pregnancy: Smoking has been implicated in the risk of diabetes, obesity and mental retardation in the newborn. An increase incidence of cleft lip and palate has also been observed in maternal smokers. Maternal smoking while pregnant also causes more miscarriages and creates low-birth weight babies.

In the mother smoking during pregnancy can cause an increase chance of premature rupture of the membranes, abruptio placentae and placenta previa. In the child, maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the chances of premature delivery, still birth and sudden infant death syndrome. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increase in neonatal admissions to the ICU and a corresponding increase in neonatal health care costs.

In Kentucky, smoking mothers had a 66% higher chance of having a low-birth weight infant and twice the chance of having their child die of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

Emphysema: This is a progressive wasting of the lungs which is most commonly caused by chronic smoking. Patient's afflicted with emphysema experience a slow loss of breath. If not caught early, many patients must use home oxygen and experience a slow suffocating death.

Smokers have more training injuries. Training injuries are the number one reason marine cadets do not make the core. These injuries include: Tendonitis, stress fractures, frostbite and more foot blisters. Nicotine is a vasoconstrictor and decreases blood flow to tissues increasing their susceptibility to injury and decreases their ability to heal. Ref: USMC National Health Naval Research Center - San Diego, CA.

Smokers have less stamina than non-smokers. They can not run as fast, have les muscular endurance and there immune system is not as strong. Smokers get sicker more often especially with bronchitis and take longer to recover. Non-smokers are steadier and have better night vision. Smoking is not allowed in USMC boot camp.

Gum, Dental and Mouth Disease To the right is a picture of a hairy tongue caused by poor mouth hygiene and smoking.

Ear Infections and URI's

Smoker's Rhinitis: Tobacco smoke contains hundreds of chemicals and at least forty of which have been implicated in cancer. Smoking irritates the lining of the nose, increasing nasal secretions and swelling. The increase in secretions are caused by goblet cell hyperplasia. The cilia (microscopic hair like structures which transport fluids) in the nose has its function inhibited and the nose becomes less able to cleanse itself and more susceptible to allergens. Thus if you smoke, treatments for allergy are less likely to be effective because the nose has a reduced ability to clean itself of the allergic particles that are inhaled. Smoking and secondhand smoke is associated with significant nasal and sinus disease and symptoms.

Shown to the left, is a picture of a dry pale inside of a nose in a 100 pack/year patient with smoker's rhinitis. In my (Dr. Kevin Kavanagh's) experience, decongestants, antihistamines and nasal steroids are of little help. In my practice, I have not had a single allergic patient who smokes improve with allergy shots. Some doctors will not even allergy test patients that smoke, and for the most part I follow this practice.

Unfortunately, most patients have caused irreversible damage to the lining of their nose and quitting smoking does not improve their symptoms. Many patients experience a worsening of their symptoms since goblet cell hypertrophy takes place which increases nasal secretions. Because cillary function (micro hair structures which clean the nose) is often permanently damaged, these secretions are not cleared and the patient experiences worsening over many months of his/her symptoms. The best treatment is to quit smoking and use hypertonic saline nasal irrigations (over-the-counter buffered hypertonic nasal spray) in combination with the use of nasal steroids. However, as with patients with chronic lung disease from smoking, patients with smoker's rhinitis, seldom return to a completely normal state.


What are the risks in Tabacco?

What are the risks?

• Addiction
• Health Risks
• Other Negatives Your Date Won't Like
• Secondhand Smoke


Nicotine in tobacco, a strong poison, is the most addictive of all drugs. It stimulates the same areas of the brain as cocaine and amphetamines, and tolerance to nicotine develops faster than to cocaine or heroin.

Neurochemically, the body adapts to the toxins in tobacco a few hours after smoking. Soon smoking becomes necessary to feel "normal."

Health Risks

• Cancer -- Cancer of the lungs, mouth, throat, esophagus and more.

• Frequent colds.

• Chronic bronchitis.

• Emphysema.

• Stroke.

• Heart disease.

Other Negatives Your Date Won't Like

• Stained teeth.

• Bad breath.

• Clothes, hair, hands, room and car reek of smoke.

• Premature face wrinkles.

• Diminished sense of taste and smell.

• Smoking drains your wallet ($2.25 or more a pack).

• Chewing tobacco leaves gross stuff between your teeth -- no kissing for you.

Secondhand Smoke

By smoking you hurt others. Tobacco smoke is a serious threat to the health of nonsmokers. Smoke in the air from others' cigarettes contains toxic chemicals including tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, arsenic and cyanide. Nonsmokers who breathe it absorb these substances and are at risk for the same serious health consequences as smokers.

India's Tobacco Board

India's Tobacco Board

India's Tobacco Board is headquartered in Guntur in the state of Andhra Pradesh. India has 96,865 registered tobacco farmers and many more who are not registered. Around 0.25% of India’s cultivated land is used for tobacco production.
Since 1947, the Indian government has supported growth in the tobacco industry. India has seven tobacco research centers that are located in Madras (now known as Chennai, Tamil Nadu), Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Mysore, West Bengal, and Rajamundry. Rajahmundry houses the core research institute. The government has set up a Central Tobacco Promotion Council, which works to increase exports of Indian tobacco.

The Indian Government and several states have taken multiple measures to reduce Cigarette smoking. Smoking in public places is banned in many states, it is not allowed to be portrayed in movies, warnings are posted on cigarette packs

Types of Tobacco

Types of Tobacco

There are a number of types of tobacco including, but are not limited to:

• Aromatic fire-cured, it is cured by smoke from open fires. In the United States, it is grown in northern middle Tennessee, central Kentucky and in Virginia. Fire-cured tobacco grown in Kentucky and Tennessee are used in some chewing tobaccos, moist snuff, some cigarettes, and as a condiment in pipe tobacco blends. Another fire-cured tobacco is Latakia, which is produced from oriental varieties of N. tabacum. The leaves are cured and smoked over smoldering fires of local hardwoods and aromatic shrubs in Cyprus and Syria.

• Brightleaf tobacco, Brightleaf is commonly known as "Virginia tobacco", often regardless of the state where they are planted. Prior to the American Civil War, most tobacco grown in the US was fire-cured dark-leaf. This type of tobacco was planted in fertile lowlands, used a robust variety of leaf, and was either fire cured or air cured. Most Canadian cigarettes are made from 100% pure Virginia tobacco.

• Burley tobacco, is an air-cured tobacco used primarily for cigarette production. In the U.S., burley tobacco plants are started from palletized seeds placed in polystyrene trays floated on a bed of fertilized water in March or April.

• Cavendish is more a process of curing and a method of cutting tobacco than a type. The processing and the cut are used to bring out the natural sweet taste in the tobacco. Cavendish can be produced from any tobacco type, but is usually one of, or a blend of Kentucky, Virginia, and burley, and is most commonly used for pipe tobacco and cigars.

• Criollo tobacco is a type of tobacco, primarily used in the making of cigars. It was, by most accounts, one of the original Cuban tobaccos that emerged around the time of Columbus.

• Dokha, is a tobacco originally grown in Iran, mixed with leaves, bark, and herbs for smoking in a midwakh.

• Turkish tobacco, is a sun-cured, highly aromatic, small-leafed variety (Nicotiana tabacum) that is grown in Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, and Macedonia. Originally grown in regions historically part of the Ottoman Empire, it is also known as "oriental". Many of the early brands of cigarettes were made mostly or entirely of Turkish tobacco; today, its main use is in blends of pipe and especially cigarette tobacco (a typical American cigarette is a blend of bright Virginia, burley and Turkish).

• Perique, a farmer called Pierre Chenet is credited with first turning this local tobacco into the Perique in 1824 through the technique of pressure-fermentation. Considered the truffle of pipe tobaccos, it is used as a component in many blended pipe tobaccos, but is too strong to be smoked pure. At one time, the freshly moist Perique was also chewed, but none is now sold for this purpose. It is typically blended with pure Virginia to lend spice, strength, and coolness to the blend.

• Shade tobacco, is cultivated in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Early Connecticut colonists acquired from the Native Americans the habit of smoking tobacco in pipes, and began cultivating the plant commercially, even though the Puritans referred to it as the "evil weed". The industry has weathered some major catastrophes, including a devastating hailstorm in 1929, and an epidemic of brown spot fungus in 2000, but is now in danger of disappearing altogether, given the value of the land to real estate speculators.

• White burley, in 1865, George Webb of Brown County, Ohio planted red burley seeds he had purchased, and found that a few of the seedlings had a whitish, sickly look. The air-cured leaf was found to be more mild than other types of tobacco.

• Wild tobacco, is native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, and parts of South America. Its botanical name is Nicotiana rustica.

Y1 is a strain of tobacco cross-bred by Brown & Williamson in the 1970s to obtain an unusually high nicotine content. In the 1990s, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used it as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.

What is Tobacco?

What is Tobacco?

Cigars, Cigarettes and Chewing Tobacco

Tobacco is an agricultural crop, most commonly used to make cigarettes. It is grown all over the world and supports a billion-dollar industry. The psychoactive ingredient is nicotine, a stimulant, but more than 4,000 other chemicals (2,000 of which are known to be poisonous) are present in cigarettes.

Tobacco is a nervous system stimulant that triggers complex biochemical and neurotransmitter disruptions. It elevates heart rate and blood pressure, constricts blood vessels, irritates lung tissue, and diminishes your ability to taste and smell.

Tobacco can be processed, dried, rolled and smoked as:

Bidis (thin, hand-rolled cigarettes imported from Southeast Asia)
Clove cigarettes
Kreteks (cigarettes imported from Indonesia that contain cloves and other additives).

Loose-leaf tobacco can be smoked in pipes and hookahs (an Asian smoking pipe with a long tube that passes through an urn of water).

The two most common forms of smokeless tobacco are chewing tobacco and snuff (finely ground tobacco placed between the gum and lip).

Today World No Tobacco Day 2011


Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as an organic pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines. It is most commonly used as a recreational drug, and is a valuable cash crop for countries such as Cuba, China and the United States.

In consumption it most commonly appears in the forms of smoking, chewing, snuffing, or dipping tobacco, or snus. Tobacco had long been in use as an entheogen in the Americas, but upon the arrival of Europeans in North America, it quickly became popularized as a trade item and a recreational drug. This popularization led to the development of the southern economy of the United States until it gave way to cotton. Following the American Civil War, a change in demand and a change in labor force allowed for the development of the cigarette. This new product quickly led to the growth of tobacco companies, until the scientific controversy of the mid-1900s.
There are more than 70 species of tobacco in the plant genus Nicotiana. The word nicotiana (as well as nicotine) is in honor of Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Portugal, who in 1559 sent it as a medicine to the court of Catherine de Medici.
Because of the addictive properties of nicotine, tolerance and dependence develop. Absorption quantity, frequency, and speed of tobacco consumption are believed to be directly related to biological strength of nicotine dependence, addiction, and tolerance. The usage of tobacco is an activity that is practiced by some 1.1 billion people, and up to 1/3 of the adult population. The World Health Organization(WHO) reports it to be the leading preventable cause of death worldwide and estimates that it currently causes 5.4 million deaths per year. Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in developed countries, but continue to rise in developing countries.

Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds are sown in cold frames or hotbeds to prevent attacks from insects, and then transplanted into the fields. Tobacco is an annual crop, which is usually harvested mechanically or by hand. After harvest, tobacco is stored for curing, which allows for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids. This allows for the agricultural product to take on properties that are usually attributed to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Following this, tobacco is packed into its various forms of consumption, which include smoking, chewing, sniffing, and so on.

Sleeping Tablets

Why are doctors reluctant to prescribe sleeping tablets?

A perfect sleeping tablet would cause sleep, but have no possible problems. Unfortunately, there is no perfect sleeping tablet. Possible problems when taking sleeping tablets include the following:

Drowsiness the next day. You may not be safe to drive or to operate machinery.
Clumsiness, drowsiness, and confusion in the night if you have to get up. For example, you may fall over and injure yourself if you get up in the night to go to the toilet. Some people have fallen down stairs due to the drowsy effect of sleeping tablets. (Older people who take sleeping tablets have an increased risk of breaking their hip, as the result of a fall.)
Tolerance. With benzodiazepines and Z drug sleeping tablets (see below), if you take them each night, your body becomes used to them. This means that, in time, the usual dose has no effect. You then need a higher dose for it to work. In time, the higher dose does not work, and you need an even higher dose, and so on. It only takes between 3-14 days of continued use to become 'tolerant' to a benzodiazepine or Z drug sleeping tablet.
Dependence. Some people become dependent (addicted) to benzodiazepines or Z drugs. This means that withdrawal symptoms occur if the tablets are stopped suddenly. Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, shaking, or just feeling awful.

Are there different types of sleeping tablet?

Benzodiazepines and Z drugs

Benzodiazepines include temazepam, flurazepam, loprazolam, lormetazepam, and nitrazepam. They are sometimes used as sleeping tablets. They are only available on prescription. Other related drugs called zaleplon, zolpidem, and zopiclone are also sleeping tablets, but strictly speaking are not benzodiazepines. They are known as the Z drugs. However, they act in a similar way (they have a similar effect on the brain cells as benzodiazepines).


These drugs are commonly used to treat allergies such as hay fever. However, drowsiness is a side-effect of some antihistamines, for example, promethazine. This 'side-effect' is useful in some people who have difficulty sleeping with their allergy. An antihistamine is the active ingredient of some sleeping tablets that you can buy from pharmacies without a prescription. Antihistamines are not as powerful as benzodiazepines or Z drugs at causing sleep. Also, they may cause a 'hangover' effect and some drowsiness in the morning. They may also cause rebound insomnia if you take them for a long time. For these reasons, current UK guidelines do not advise the use of antihistamines to be used solely as a sleeping tablet.


Melatonin is, strictly speaking, not a 'sleeping tablet'. Melatonin is a naturally occurring hormone made by the body. The level of melatonin in the body varies throughout the day. It is involved in helping to regulate the 'circadian rhythms' (daily cycles) of various functions in the body. A melatonin supplement is sometimes advised in older people (more than 55 years of age) with persistent insomnia. The recommended duration of treatment is for three weeks only.

Other drugs

Chlormethiazole, chloral, and barbiturates are old fashioned sleeping tablets. They are not commonly used these days as benzodiazepines and Z drugs are usually preferred.

What is the alternative to sleeping tablets?

Your doctor or nurse may give you advice on how to tackle poor sleep naturally. See separate leaflet called 'Sleep Problems - A Self Help Guide' which gives advice on how to sleep better.

If a sleeping tablet is prescribed

If your doctor prescribes you a benzodiazepine or Z drug as a sleeping tablet, it will usually be only for a short time (a week or so). This is to help you get over a particularly bad patch. Sometimes a doctor will advise sleeping tablets to be taken on only 2 or 3 nights per week, rather than on every night. This prevents tolerance or dependence to the tablet from developing.

What if I am already taking a sleeping tablet regularly?

For various reasons, some people have become used to taking a benzodiazepine or Z drug sleeping tablet every night. As a rule, if you are taking one of these sleeping tablets each night, you should consider reducing or stopping them. However, in some people, problems of tolerance or dependence (see above) mean that it can be difficult to stop the tablet suddenly.

If you want to reduce or stop benzodiazepine or Z drug sleeping tablets, it is best to consult a doctor or nurse for advice. The sort of advice may include the following:

Do it gradually, and cut the dose down a little at a time. A switch to a different benzodiazepine (diazepam) may be advised. This is because it is easier to gradually reduce the dose of diazepam than with other benzodiazepines or Z drugs.
It is best to wait until any life crisis has passed, and your level of stress is as low as can be.
Consider stopping the tablets whilst on holiday, when you have less pressure from work, family, etc.
You are likely to have a period of worse sleep when you stop the tablets. Try to anticipate and accept this.
Advice on coping strategies, and tips on how to naturally improve your sleep pattern.

See separate leaflet called 'Stopping Benzodiazepines and Z Drugs' gives more details. However, stopping benzodiazepine or Z drug sleeping tablets is not practical in every case.

What Is A Tablet?

What Is A Tablet?

Although some tablets consist of nothing more than the drug and an inactive filler substance compacted together, many are far more complex. Manufacturers frequently also include ingredients to hold the tablet together (binders), ingredients to aid disintegration when the tablet reaches the stomach (disintegrants), colourings to make the tablet identifiable and in very small amounts materials to help the powders move around the tablet machine during manufacture e.g. lubricants, glidants and anti-adherents. The figure below provides a diagrammatic representation of a tablet.

Diagrammatic representation of a cross section of a tablet’s contents.

Manufactures spend a lot of time deciding on the level of compaction a tablet requires and in selecting inactive ingredients which don't affect the active drug and the way it is absorbed. Because active and inactive ingredients in one tablet may be incompatible with active and inactive ingredients in another it is never appropriate to crush more than one different tablet at a time.

Different Types Of Tablets

Different Types Of Tablets

Increasingly tablets are being made which are suitable for patients who can't swallow normal tablets. These are listed below with examples provided.

Dispersible or effervescent tablets

These tablets are designed to be added to water just prior to swallowing. They are frequently quite large and can contain large amounts of sodium. The size prevents patients from taking many of them which is helpful for soluble paracetamol products for instance however the sodium content can cause problems in patients where sodium intake is restricted.

Sub-lingual tablets

These tablets are designed to be dissolved under the tongue, are rapidly absorbed through the tongue and therefore work quickly. This is why some tablets for the treatment of angina pain and others for general pain are formulated in this manner. The disadvantages are that they require sufficient saliva production and due to quick absorption are more likely to cause side effects and are more quickly removed from the body.

Buccal tablets

Buccal tablets are intended to be placed on the gum or in the cheek to allow the drug absorbed. Because the medicine can be held for a longer period of time on the gum, medicines which need to be released at a slower rate than sub-lingual tablets can be given via this route. This route is used for anti-nausea drugs and nicotine replacement gums. Anti-nausea medicines are particularly suitable for buccal administration as the nausea itself can cause swallowed tablets to be vomited and therefore rendered ineffective.


Melt tablets are placed on the tongue and are designed to dissolve directly in the mouth's saliva. The contents are then swallowed with saliva and consequently water does not have to be administered with these medicines. This is particularly useful in patients who are at risk of aspiration and therefore unable to swallow tablets with water concurrently.

Oro-dispersible tablets

Oro-dispersible tablets are similar to melts and are designed to disperse in the mouth and to be washed down with saliva. As will sub-lingual, buccal and melts, oro-dispersible products require an adequate amount of saliva production. Some oro-dispersible tablets consist of coated granules and therefore it is not appropriate to crush the oro-dispersible product prior to dispersion.

Tablet compaction simulator

Tablet compaction simulator

Tablet formulations are designed and tested using a laboratory machine called a Tablet Compaction Simulator or Powder Compaction Simulator. This is a computer controlled device that can measure the punch positions, punch pressures, friction forces, die wall pressures, and sometimes the tablet internal temperature during the compaction event. Numerous experiments with small quantities of different mixtures can be performed to optimise a formulation. Mathematically corrected punch motions can be programmed to simulate any type and model of production tablet press. Initial quantities of active pharmaceutical ingredients are very expensive to produce, and using a Compaction Simulator reduces the amount of powder required for product development.

Tablet presses

Tablet presses, also called tableting machines, range from small, inexpensive bench-top models that make one tablet at a time (single-station presses), with only around a half-ton pressure, to large, computerized, industrial models (multi-station rotary presses) that can make hundreds of thousands to millions of tablets an hour with much greater pressure. The tablet press is an essential piece of machinery for any pharmaceutical and nutraceutical manufacturer. Common manufacturers of tablet presses include Fette, Korsch, Kikusui, Manesty, IMA and Courtoy.

Tablet presses must allow the operator to adjust the position of the lower and upper punches accurately, so that the tablet weight, thickness and density can each be controlled. This is achieved using a series of cams, rollers, and/or tracks that act on the tablet tooling (punches). Mechanical systems are also incorporated for die filling, and for ejecting and removing the tablets from the press after compression. Pharmaceutical tablet presses are required to be easy to clean and quick to reconfigure with different tooling, because they are usually used to manufacture many different products.

Tablet coating

Many tablets today are coated after being pressed. Although sugar-coating was popular in the past, the process has many drawbacks. Modern tablet coatings are polymer and polysaccharide based, with plasticizers and pigments included. Tablet coatings must be stable and strong enough to survive the handling of the tablet, must not make tablets stick together during the coating process, and must follow the fine contours of embossed characters or logos on tablets. Coatings are necessary for tablets that have an unpleasant taste, and a smoother finish makes large tablets easier to swallow. Tablet coatings are also useful to extend the shelf-life of components that are sensitive to moisture or oxidation. Special coatings (for example with pearlescent effects) can enhance brand recognition.

If the active ingredient of a tablet is sensitive to acid, or is irritant to the stomach lining, an enteric coating can be used, which is resistant to stomach acid, and dissolves in the less acidic area of the intestines. Enteric coatings are also used for medicines that can be negatively affected by taking a long time to reach the small intestine, where they are absorbed. Coatings are often chosen to control the rate of dissolution of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. Some drugs will be absorbed better at different points in the digestive system. If the highest percentage of absorption of a drug takes place in the stomach, a coating that dissolves quickly and easily in acid will be selected. If the rate of absorption is best in the large intestine or colon, then a coating that is acid resistant and dissolves slowly would be used to ensure it reached that point before dispersing.


It is sometimes necessary to split tablets into halves or quarters. Tablets are easier to break accurately if scored, but there are devices called pill-splitters which cut unscored and scored tablets. Tablets with special coatings (for example enteric coatings or controlled-release coatings) should not be broken before use, as this will expose the tablet core to the digestive juices, short-circuiting the intended delayed-release effect.

Manufacturing of Tablets


Manufacture of the tableting blend

In the tablet pressing process, the main guideline is to ensure that the appropriate amount of active ingredient is in each tablet. Hence, all the ingredients should be well-mixed. If a sufficiently homogenous mix of the components cannot be obtained with simple blending processes, the ingredients must be granulated prior to compression to assure an even distribution of the active compound in the final tablet. Two basic techniques are used to granulate powders for compression into a tablet: wet granulation and dry granulation. Powders that can be mixed well do not require granulation and can be compressed into tablets through direct compression.

Wet granulation

Wet granulation is a process of using a liquid binder to lightly agglomerate the powder mixture. The amount of liquid has to be properly controlled, as over-wetting will cause the granules to be too hard and under-wetting will cause them to be too soft and friable. Aqueous solutions have the advantage of being safer to deal with than solvent-based systems but may not be suitable for drugs which are degraded by hydrolysis.


Step 1: The active ingredient and excipients are weighed and mixed.
Step 2: The wet granulate is prepared by adding the liquid binder–adhesive to the powder blend and mixing thoroughly. Examples of binders/adhesives include aqueous preparations of cornstarch, natural gums such as acacia, cellulose derivatives such as methyl cellulose, gelatin, and povidone.
Step 3: Screening the damp mass through a mesh to form pellets or granules.
Step 4: Drying the granulation. A conventional tray-dryer or fluid-bed dryer are most commonly used.
Step 5: After the granules are dried, they are passed through a screen of smaller size than the one used for the wet mass to create granules of uniform size.

Low shear wet granulation processes use very simple mixing equipment, and can take a considerable time to achieve a uniformly mixed state. High shear wet granulation processes use equipment that mixes the powder and liquid at a very fast rate, and thus speeds up the manufacturing process. Fluid bed granulation is a multiple-step wet granulation process performed in the same vessel to pre-heat, granulate, and dry the powders. It is used because it allows close control of the granulation process.

Dry granulation

Dry granulation processes create granules by light compaction of the powder blend under low pressures. The compacts so-formed are broken up gently to produce granules (agglomerates). This process is often used when the product to be granulated is sensitive to moisture and heat. Dry granulation can be conducted on a tablet press using slugging tooling or on a roll press called a roller compactor. Dry granulation equipment offers a wide range of pressures to attain proper densification and granule formation. Dry granulation is simpler than wet granulation, therefore the cost is reduced. However, dry granulation often produces a higher percentage of fine granules, which can compromise the quality or create yield problems for the tablet. Dry granulation requires drugs or excipients with cohesive properties, and a 'dry binder' may need to be added to the formulation to facilitate the formation of granules.

Granule lubrication

After granulation, a final lubrication step is used to ensure that the tableting blend does not stick to the equipment during the tableting process. This usually involves low shear blending of the granules with a powdered lubricant, such as magnesium stearate or stearic acid.

Manufacture of the tablets

Whatever process is used to make the tableting blend, the process of making a tablet by powder compaction is very similar. First, the powder is filled into the die from above. The mass of powder is determined by the position of the lower punch in the die, the cross-sectional area of the die, and the powder density. At this stage, adjustments to the tablet weight are normally made by repositioning the lower punch. After die filling, the upper punch is lowered into the die and the powder is uniaxially compressed to a porosity of between 5 and 20%. The compression can take place in one or two stages (main compression, and, sometimes, pre-compression or tamping) and for commercial production occurs very fast (500–50 msec per tablet). Finally, the upper punch is pulled up and out of the die (decompression), and the tablet is ejected from the die by lifting the lower punch until its upper surface is flush with the top face of the die. This process is simply repeated many times to manufacture multiple tablets.

Common problems encountered during tablet manufacturing operations include:

poor (low) weight uniformity, usually caused by uneven powder flow into the die
poor (low) content uniformity, caused by uneven distribution of the API in the tableting blend
sticking of the powder blend to the tablet tooling, due to inadequate lubrication, worn or dirty tooling, and sub-optimal material properties
capping, lamination or chipping. Such mechanical failure is due to improper formulation design or faulty equipment operation.

Tablet properties

Tablet properties

Tablets can be made in virtually any shape, although requirements of patients and tableting machines mean that most are round, oval or capsule shaped. More unusual shapes have been manufactured but patients find these harder to swallow, and they are more vulnerable to chipping or manufacturing problems.

Tablet diameter and shape are determined by the machine tooling used to produce them - a die plus an upper and a lower punch are required. This is called a station of tooling. The thickness is determined by the amount of tablet material and the position of the punches in relation to each other during compression. Once this is done, we can measure the corresponding pressure applied during compression. The shorter the distance between the punches, thickness, the greater the pressure applied during compression, and sometimes the harder the tablet. Tablets need to be hard enough that they don't break up in the bottle, yet friable enough that they disintegrate in the gastric tract.

Tablets need to be strong enough to resist the stresses of packaging, shipping and handling by the pharmacist and patient. The mechanical strength of tablets is assessed using a combination of (i) simple failure and erosion tests, and (ii) more sophisticated engineering tests. The simpler tests are often used for quality control purposes, whereas the more complex tests are used during the design of the formulation and manufacturing process in the research and development phase. Standards for tablet properties are published in the various international pharmacopeias (USP/NF, EP, JP, etc.). The hardness of tablets is the principle measure of mechanical strength. Hardness is tested using a hardness tester. The units for hardness have evolved since the 1930s.

Lubricants prevent ingredients from clumping together and from sticking to the tablet punches or capsule filling machine. Lubricants also ensure that tablet formation and ejection can occur with low friction between the solid and die wall.

Common minerals like talc or silica, and fats, e.g. vegetable stearin, magnesium stearate or stearic acid are the most frequently used lubricants in tablets or hard gelatin capsules.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Tablet

Advantages and disadvantages of Tablet

Tablets are simple and convenient to use. They provide an accurately measured dosage of the active ingredient in a convenient portable package, and can be designed to protect unstable medications or disguise unpalatable ingredients. Colored coatings, embossed markings and printing can be used to aid tablet recognition. Manufacturing processes and techniques can provide tablets special properties, for example, sustained release or fast dissolving formulations.

Some drugs may be unsuitable for administration by the oral route. For example, protein drugs such as insulin may be denatured by stomach acids. Such drugs cannot be made into tablets. Some drugs may be deactivated by the liver when they are carried there from the gastrointestinal tract by the hepatic portal vein (the "first pass effect"), making them unsuitable for oral use. Drugs which can be taken sublingually are absorbed through the oral mucosae, so that they bypass the liver and are less susceptible to the first pass effect.

The oral bioavailability of some drugs may be low due to poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Such drugs may need to be given in very high doses or by injection. For drugs that need to have rapid onset, or that have severe side effects, the oral route may not be suitable. For example salbutamol, used to treat problems in the pulmonary system, can have effects on the heart and circulation if taken orally; these effects are greatly reduced by inhaling smaller doses direct to the required site of action.

Tabletting formulations

Tabletting formulations

In the tablet-pressing process, it is important that all ingredients be fairly dry, powdered or granular, somewhat uniform in particle size, and freely flowing. Mixed particle sized powders can segregate during manufacturing operations due to different densities, which can result in tablets with poor drug or active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content uniformity but granulation should prevent this. Content uniformity ensures that the same API dose is delivered with each tablet.

Some APIs may be tableted as pure substances, but this is rarely the case; most formulations include excipients. Normally, an pharmacologically inactive ingredient (excipient) termed a binder is added to help hold the tablet together and give it strength. A wide variety of binders may be used, some common ones including lactose, dibasic calcium phosphate, sucrose, corn (maize) starch, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone polyvinylpyrrolidone and modified cellulose (for example hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxyethylcellulose).

Often, an ingredient is also needed to act as a disintegrant to aid tablet dispersion once swallowed, releasing the API for absorption. Some binders, such as starch and cellulose, are also excellent disintegrants.

Small amounts of lubricants are usually added, as well. The most common of these is magnesium stearate and calcium stearate ; however, other commonly used tablet lubricants include stearic acid (stearin), hydrogenated oil, and sodium stearyl fumarate. These help the tablets, once pressed, to be more easily ejected from the die and for fine finishing of tablets.



A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form. It comprises a mixture of active substances and excipients, usually in powder form, pressed or compacted from a powder into a solid dose. The excipients can include diluents, binders or granulating agents, glidants (flow aids) and lubricants to ensure efficient tabletting; disintegrants to promote tablet break-up in the digestive tract; sweeteners or flavours to enhance taste; and pigments to make the tablets visually attractive. A polymer coating is often applied to make the tablet smoother and easier to swallow, to control the release rate of the active ingredient, to make it more resistant to the environment (extending its shelf life), or to enhance the tablet's appearance.

The compressed tablet is the most popular dosage form in use today. About two-thirds of all prescriptions are dispensed as solid dosage forms, and half of these are compressed tablets. A tablet can be formulated to deliver an accurate dosage to a specific site; it is usually taken orally, but can be administered sublingually, buccally, rectally or intravaginally. The tablet is just one of the many forms that an oral drug can take such as syrups, elixirs, suspensions, and emulsions. Medicinal tablets were originally made in the shape of a disk of whatever color their components determined, but are now made in many shapes and colors to help distinguish different medicines. Tablets are often stamped with symbols, letters, and numbers, which enable them to be identified.

Sizes of tablets to be swallowed range from a few millimeters to about a centimeter. Some tablets are in the shape of capsules, and are called "caplets". Medicinal tablets and capsules are often called pills. This is technically incorrect, since tablets are made by compression, whereas pills are ancient solid dose forms prepared by rolling a soft mass into a round shape. Other products are manufactured in the form of tablets which are designed to dissolve or disintegrate; e.g. cleaning and deodorizing products.

Saturday, 28 May 2011

IPL 2011 Champion Chennai Super Kings

IPL 2011 Champion Chennai Super Kings

CSK vs RCB: Chennai Super Kings beat Royal Challengers Bangalore to win IPL 4

CHENNAI: The Super Kings are the emperors of India.

In the battlefield called Chepauk, Dhoni's army ambushed the Royal Challengers to defend the citadel they had clinched in Mumbai last year. The Chennai mean machine started working from Ball One with M Vijay (95 off 52 balls) and Mike Hussey (63 off 45 balls) taking over and there was no looking back.

Vijay never looked good throughout the tournament, but Dhoni stuck with him. And what a day the Chennai boy chose to come good! The right-hander, in an outstanding opening partnership of 159 runs off 14.5 overs with Mike Hussey (63), did the groundwork and built some towers on it for good measure as CSK raced away to 205.

One man who could make a match out of it was Chris Gayle. But the shrewd Dhoni brought R Ashwin in the first over and the offie got the first two balls to turn away from the left-hander. Then came the killer ball which spun in and Gayle, on the back-foot, edged it to Dhoni.

After that, it was just a matter of keeping it tight as Royal Challengers kept losing wickets at regular intervals to go down by 58 runs.

But this final will be remembered by one and all for the way Vijay batted. He is highly rated and on Super Saturday he showed why. Shots were flowing from his bat like a stream as RCB skipper Daniel Vettori simply ran out of options. The crucial phase was when Vettori brought himself on, but Vijay showed excellent temperament. Vijay has the gift of timing and it was all so flawless on Saturday evening that a champion performer like Zaheer Khan looked helpless. And while Vijay was giving the fans all the reasons to cheer about, Hussey played the role of the guiding light to perfection.

In the humidity of Chennai, it's not easy to keep it going, but the two kept pushing each other. Even the strategic time-out, which is generally taken after the 16th over, was brilliantly timed. Hussey and Vijay took it after the 13th to get their breath back and carried on with the onslaught.

As the runs flowed, the shoulders drooped in the RCB ranks with misfields and overthrows creeping in. It all added to the Royal woes and finally, when Hussey got out trying to clear the long-on boundary, the game was all but over. One would have loved to see Vijay completing his second IPL century, but that was not to be. He got out in the 17th over, trying to clear the fence, but that didn't stop CSK from easing past the 200-run mark.

In another couple of hours, they lifted the trophy as Chepauk sank in the sea of yellow.

Chennai Super Kings win IPL 2011

Chennai Super Kings win IPL 2011

The 2011 DLF Indian Premier League came to a fantastic close with an incredible batting filled match between Chennai Super Kings and Royal Challengers Bangalore. Chennai Super Kings came to the game ready to make sure their runs were as high as possible knowing that Chris Gayle is a player to watch out for from the Challengers side.

Chennai scored an incredible 169-1 making it the highest opening match in the IPL to date with the batting partnership of M Vijay and Michael Hussey. The bright yellow shirts of Chennai welcomed the cheers from the crowds in a jam packed Chidambaram Stadium. The 50,000 seats literately filled to the brim with fans from the home side were entertained to the max by their CSK team

After the ball change at 169-1, CSK did not hold back on the bombastic hits. Captain MS Dhoni came in smashing sixes from Gayle’s bowling complemented by the scoreboard saying ‘M.S.TERCLASS’ after one of his hits. The highest individual score of 95 in an IPL final was scored by M Vijay. Dhoni was out after 22 runs, leaving the rest of the work to the remaining players of CSK.

Suresh Raina and Morkel then continued in the same style smashing the ball over the boundaries reaching 199-3, when Morkel was caught near the boundary and Raina bowled out from the bowling of Chris Gayle of RCB. The CSK innings ended on huge history making score of 205-5 with a smash of six into the crowd from Bravo. Making them the team with the highest score in an IPL final at that point.

Royal Challngers Bangalore came on to bat with vigour to try and beat the massive score by CSK. Needing 206 to win RCB required the efforts of Chris Gayle to deliver his high scoring hits. Chris Gayle and Mayank Agarwal started the batting for RCB with Ravichandran Ashwin bowling from CSK. Then the unexpected happened.

The crowd roared and the yellow shirts on the field went into a frenzy knowing they got the biggest wicket.

RCB at 6-1 had to now settle for the rest of the team to try and win this game which looked more and more like CSK’s final. Aggarwal was bowled by Ashwin leaving RCB at 16-2. The partnership of V Kholi and AB de Villiers began to shape when they reached 46-2 but then de Villiers was bowled out after reaching 18 runs.

Suresh Raina then came to bowl for CSK to Pomersbach and Kholi at 50-3. Then, came in Jakati to bowl who caught Pomersbach with a great catch after bowling. Followed by Kholi’s demise by Suresh Raina. RCB’s misery continued with Vettori being bowled out for a duck by CSK’s outstanding bowler Ashwin.

RCB then carried on trying to see if they could salvage anything but it seemed a loss cause at 79-6. Tiwary and Mithun reached 92-7 for RCB until Mithun was then caught by Bollinger of the Chennai Super Kings, making their win look more and more likely. Zahir Khan came on as the next batsman for RCB to team up with Tiwary facing the balls from Bravo, when they eventually RCB reached 100-7. Still leaving them 109 runs from 32 balls to get to win.

Tiwary and Khan continued to make runs at 125-7 needing 81 from 14 balls to win but it was evidently a major feat for the Challengers with the game being pretty one sided since the demise of Gayle which triggered wickets to fall one after the other.

MS Dhoni’s team in yellow looked pretty comfortable by this point with the win in the horizon. The captain made some excellent decisions on the field to help CSK win the silverware. Bollinger then dismissed Zahir Khan who was caught by Hussey at the score of 133-8 for RCB. The last bowl of the final left RCB at 147-8. CSK had defended their title in sheer cricketing style.

As expected the game then ended with a huge and worthy win for the Chennai Super Kings who won by 58 runs and once again proved they were still the champions of this biggest domestic cricket tournament in the world.

Chennai Super Kings 2011 IPL CHAMPIONS Royal Challengers Bangalore by 58 runs

CSK vs RCB live score: Chennai retains IPL crown after beating Bangalore by 58 runs

Defending Champions Chennai Super Kings retained the IPL crown after crushing Royal Challengers Bangalore by 58 runs.

CSK vs RCB: live commentary and scorecard

Chasing a mammoth target of 206 runs, Bangalore lost the wickets in regular intervals and never looked to reach closer to the target.

For Chennai, R Ashwin and Shadab Jakati bowled brilliant spell to restrict Bangalore 147/8 in their allotted quota of 20 overs.

Ashwin took three wickets while Jakati scalped two Bangalore batsmen.

For Bangalore, Saurabh Tiwary topped the score with unbeaten 43 runs. Chennai performed like a champion and every member of the side contributed in the win.

Earlier, R Ashwin provided double blow to Bangalore as he dismissed Chris Gayle (0) and Mayank Agarwal (10) quickly. In the match that mattered most, Gayle scored duck.

Left-arm spinner Shadab Jakati scalped AB de Villiers to put Bangalore under pressure. Villiers made 18 runs. Soon after AB de Villiers, Jakati sentpack Luke Pomersbach for 2 runs.

Powered by record opening wicket partnership between Murali Vijay and Mike Hussey, Chennai Super Kings scored mammoth 205/5 against Bangalore.

Vijay and Hussey added 159 runs for the opening wicket. Vijay played fabulous knock of 95 runs. His innings was studded with four boundaries and six maximums.

Mike Hussey also scored half century. He made well deserved 63 runs. Skipper MS Dhoni also made quickfire 22 runs.

However, Chennai lost four wickets in quick succession but Bravo hits six on last ball off Gayle to take Chennai past 200.

For Bangalore, Arvind and Gayle took two wickets each while Syed Mohammad scalps one wicket.

Earlier, Chennai Duper Kings skipper MS Dhoni won the toss and elected to bat against royal Challengers Bangalore in the IPL final 2011 here at MA Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai on Saturday.

After winning the crucial toss, Dhoni said that he would try to put some good total on board as the track is batting friendly.
Chennai and Bangalore have made no changes in the playing XI.

RCB skipper Daniel Vettori said that he would love to bat.

Chennai: Murali Vijay, Mike Hussey, Suresh Raina, MS Dhoni, Albie Morkel, S Badrinath, Dwayne Bravo, Wriddhiman Saha, R Ashwin, Doug Bollinger, Shadab Jakati.

Bangalore: Chris Gayle, Mayank Agarwal, Virat Kohli, AB de Villiers, Saurabh Tiwary, LA Pomersbach, Daniel Vettori, Sreenath Aravind, Abhimanyu Mithun, Zaheer Khan, J Syed Mohammad

Chennai Super Kings 2011 IPL CHAMPIONS AGAIN!!

Chennai Super Kings 2011 IPL CHAMPIONS AGAIN!!

Chennai Super Kings (Tamil: சென்னை சூப்பர் கிங்ஸ் (often abbreviated as CSK) is a franchise cricket team based in Chennai that plays in the Indian Premier League. The team is captained by Mahendra Singh Dhoni and coached by Stephen Fleming. The M. A. Chidambaram Stadium (often referred to as Chepauk) is the Super Kings' home ground. They are the current holders of the IPL trophy, having won the 2011 Indian Premier League. They are the only team in the IPL History to win the trophy for the second time that too in consecutive years. They were the runners-up of the inaugural season and semi-finalists of the second edition and are the only side to make it to the semi-finals in all the four (including 2011) editions of the tournament. The Super Kings have qualified for two Champions League tournaments, firstly the 2008 edition, although the tournament was subsequently cancelled, and the 2010 tournament of which they became Champions. The leading run-scorer of the side is Suresh Raina while the leading wicket-taker is Albie Morkel.The brand value of Chennai Super Kings (Champions IPL 2010) is estimated at USD 70.16 Million.

WHOA!! We are IPL CHAMPIONS AGAIN!! The team did well to raise up their game for the crucial match. This is why Dhoni's captaincy and Fleming's coaching is crucial for Chennai Super Kings.

1. Vijay & Hussey: What a way to come back to the form. They showed determination and intent by running very hard in the initial overs. They scored 56 runs in the first six overs without even a single boundary. Commendable performance from the openers.
2. Ashwin: Again another great bowling performance. His early wicket of Gayle snubbed out the slightest hope that RCB had.
3. Jakati: Another great bowling performance from him.

Fan's Man of the Match: Vijay. His explosive innings and his determined running between the wickets was commendable. Hope to see more such clinical partnerships from Hussey & Vijay in the next season.

Chennai Super Kings 2011 IPL... We are CHAMPIONS AGAIN!!

Chennai Super Kings successfully defended their title with another clinical display. Great Opening Partnership by Hussey-Vijay set up the most dominating win of the season.

Chennai Super Kings (CSK) Team Squad IPL 2011 Players List is placed here. The IPL 3 season champions Chennai Super Kings will go to IPL 4 with a change in team structure although they will share the same pride and express hungry for success as always.

The Chennai Super Kings may have lost Muralidharan and Laxmipathy Balaji, but they have all areas of shortest form of cricket covered with their new buys. Hussey will be up the order with Murali Vijay; Dwayne Bravo and Scott Styris will join the party with Albie Morkel to bolster the all-rounder strength as well as the middle order and both Ashwin and Tim Southee will grunt in the company of Kulasekara and Ben Hilfenhaus. Dhoni will steer the team in the company of Raina.

With a coach as erudite and as meticulous as Stephen Fleming, the Super Kings is looking forward building yet another strong team who will roar through success. Updated list of Chennai Super Kings IPL 4 team squad is placed below.
Chennai Super Kings Squad, Team for 2011 IPL

CSK IPL 2011 Player List of Indian Players

Mahendra Singh Dhoni
Suresh Raina
Murali Vijay
Wriddhiman Saha
Ravichandran Ashwin
Subramanium Badrinath
Joginder Sharma
Sudeep Tyagi
Abhinav Mukund
Aniruddha Shrikant
Ganapathi Vignesh
K Vasudevdas
Shadb Jakati
Vijaykumar Yomahesh

Alexander the Great (356 - 323 BC)

Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the nature of the ancient world in little more than a decade.

Alexander was born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in July 356 BC. His parents were Philip II of Macedon and his wife Olympias. Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Philip was assassinated in 336 BC and Alexander inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom. He quickly dealt with his enemies at home and reasserted Macedonian power within Greece. He then set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without suffering a single defeat. His greatest victory was at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC. The young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, overlord of Asia Minor and pharaoh of Egypt became 'great king' of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered around two million square miles. The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far to the east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, while the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Alexander was acknowledged as a military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and those of his soldiers. The fact that his army only refused to follow him once in 13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

He died of a fever in Babylon in June 323 BC.

Alexander the Great Biography

Alexander the Great Biography

Born: September 20, 356 B.C.E.
Pella, Macedonia
Died: June 13, 323 B.C.E.
Macedonian king

Alexander the Great was one of the best-known rulers in ancient history. By the time of his death at thirty-two, he ruled the largest Western empire of the ancient world.

Education by tutors

Alexander was born in 356 B.C.E. to King Philip II of Macedon (382–336 B.C.E. ) and Queen Olympias (375–316 B.C.E. ). Growing up, Alexander rarely saw his father, who was usually involved in long military campaigns. Olympias, a fierce and possessive mother, dominated her son's youth and filled him with a deep resentment of his father. Nonetheless, their son's education was important to both parents.

Alexander the Great.

One of Alexander's first teachers was Leonidas, a relative of Olympias, who struggled to control the defiant boy. Philip hired Leonidas to train the youth in math, archery, and horsemanship (the training and care of horses). Alexander's favorite tutor was Lysimachus. This tutor devised a game in which Alexander impersonated the hero Achilles. Achilles was a heroic Greek warrior from a famous ancient poem called the Iliad. Achilles became the model of the noble warrior for Alexander, and he modeled himself after this hero. This game delighted Olympias because her family claimed the hero as an ancestor.

In 343 Philip asked Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E. ), the famous Greek philosopher and scientist, to tutor Alexander. For three years in the rural Macedonian village of Mieza, Aristotle taught Alexander philosophy, government, politics, poetry, drama, and the sciences. Aristotle wrote a shortened edition of the Iliad, which Alexander always kept with him.

Beginnings of the soldier

Alexander's education at Mieza ended in 340 B.C.E. . While Philip was away fighting a war, he left the sixteen-year-old prince as acting king. Within a year Alexander led his first military attack against a rival tribe. In 338 he led the cavalry (troops who fight battles on horseback) and helped his father smash the forces of Athens and Thebes, two Greek city-states.

Alexander's relationship and military cooperation with his father ended soon after Philip took control of the Corinthian League. The Corinthian League was a military alliance made up of all the Greek states except for Sparta. Philip then married another woman, which forced Alexander and Olympias to flee Macedon. Eventually Philip and Alexander were reunited.

Alexander as king

In the summer of 336 B.C.E. at the ancient Macedonian capital of Aegai, Alexander's sister married her uncle Alexander. During this event Philip was assassinated by a young Macedonian noble, Pausanias. After his father's death Alexander sought the approval of the Macedonian army for his bid for kingship. The generals agreed and proclaimed him king, making Alexander the ruler of Macedon. In order to secure his throne, Alexander then killed everyone who could have a possible claim to the kingship.

Although he was the king of Macedon, Alexander did not automatically gain control of the Corinthian League. Some Greek states rejoiced at Philip's murder, and Athens wanted to rule the League. Throughout Greece independence movements arose. Immediately Alexander led his armies to Greece to stop these movements. The Greek states quickly recognized him as their leader, while Sparta still refused to join. The League gave Alexander unlimited military powers to attack Persia, a large kingdom to the east of Greece.

Asian campaign

In October 335 B.C.E. Alexander returned to Macedon and prepared for his Persian expedition. In numbers of troops, ships, and wealth, Alexander's resources were inferior to those of Darius III (380–330 B.C.E. ), the king of Persia. In the early spring of 334 Alexander's army met Darius's army for the first time. Alexander's army defeated the Persians and continued to move west. Darius's capital at Sardis fell easily, followed by the cities of Miletus and Halicarnassus. The territories Alexander conquered formed the foundations of his Asian empire.

By autumn 334 Alexander had crossed the southern coast of Asia Minor (now Turkey). In Asia Minor, Alexander cut the famous Gordian Knot. According to tradition, whoever undid the intricate Gordian Knot would become ruler of Asia. Many people began to believe that Alexander had godlike powers and was destined to rule Asia.
Then in 333 Alexander moved his forces east and the two kings met in battle at the city of Issus. Alexander was outnumbered but used creative military formations to beat Darius's forces. Darius fled. Alexander then attacked the Persian royal camp where he gained lots of riches and captured the royal family. He treated Darius's wife, mother, and three children with respect. With Darius's army defeated, Alexander proclaimed himself king of Asia.

As a result of the defeat, Darius wanted to sign a truce with Alexander. He offered a large ransom for his family, a marriage alliance, a treaty of friendship, and part of his empire. Alexander ignored Darius's offer because he wanted to conquer all of Asia.

Campaign in Egypt

Alexander then pushed on into Egypt. Egypt fell to Alexander without resistance, and the Egyptians hailed him as their deliverer from Persian domination. In every country, Alexander respected the local customs, religions, and citizens. In Egypt he sacrificed to the local gods and the Egyptian priesthood recognized him as pharaoh, or ruler of ancient Egypt. They hailed Alexander as a god. Alexander then worked to bring Greek culture to Egypt. In 331 B.C.E. he founded the city of Alexandria, which became a center of Greek culture and commerce.

More fighting in Persia

In September 331 B.C.E. Alexander defeated the Persians at the Battle of Gaugamela. The Persian army collapsed, and again Darius fled. Instead of chasing after him, Alexander explored Babylonia, which was the region that Darius had abandoned. The land had rich farmlands, palaces, and treasures. Alexander became "King of Babylon, King of Asia, King of the Four Quarters of the World."

Alexander next set out for Persepolis, the capital of the Persian Empire. To prevent an uprising, Alexander burned Persepolis. In the spring of 330 he marched to Darius's last capital, Ecbatana (modern Hamadan). There Alexander set off in pursuit of Darius.

By the time Alexander caught up with Darius in July 330, Darius's assistants had assassinated him. Alexander ordered a royal funeral with honors for his enemy. As Darius's successor, Alexander captured the assassins and punished them according to Persian law. Alexander was now the king of Persia, and he began to wear Persian royal clothing. As elsewhere, Alexander respected the local customs.

Iran and India

After defeating Darius, Alexander pushed eastward toward Iran. He conquered the region, built cities, and established colonies of Macedonians. In the spring of 327 B.C.E. he seized the fortress of Ariamazes and captured the prince Oxyartes. Alexander married Oxyartes's daughter Rhoxana to hold together his Eastern empire more closely in a political alliance.

In the summer of 327 Alexander marched toward India. In northern India, he defeated the armies of King Porus. Impressed with his bravery and nobility, Alexander allowed Porus to remain king and gained his loyalty.

By July 325 the army continued north to the harsh and barren land in the Persian Gulf. The hardship and death that occurred after arriving brought disorganization to the army. It was also at this time that disorder began to spread throughout the empire. Alexander was greatly concerned with the rule of his empire and the need for soldiers, officers, and administrators.

In order to strengthen the empire, Alexander then made an attempt to bind the Persian nobility to the Macedonians to create a ruling class. To accomplish this goal, he ordered eighty of his Macedonian companions to marry Persian princesses. Alexander, although married to Rhoxana, married Stateira, a daughter of Darius, to solidify his rule.

When Alexander incorporated thirty thousand Persians into the army, his soldiers grumbled. Later that summer, when he dismissed his aged and wounded Macedonian soldiers, the soldiers spoke out against Alexander's Persian troops and his Persian manners. Alexander arrested thirteen of their leaders and executed them. He then addressed the army and reminded his soldiers of their glories and honors. After three days the Macedonians apologized for their criticism. In a thanksgiving feast the Persians joined the Macedonians as forces of Alexander.

Alexander's death

In the spring of 323 B.C.E. Alexander moved to Babylon and made plans to explore the Caspian Sea and Arabia and then to conquer northern Africa. On June 2 he fell ill, and he died eleven days later.

Alexander's empire had been a vast territory ruled by the king and his assistants. The empire fell apart at his death. The Greek culture that Alexander introduced in the East had barely developed. In time, however, the Persian and Greek cultures blended and prospered as a result of his rule.

Thirukkural in English - From chapters 121 to 133

Division III. Love - From chapters 121 to 133

121 Nostalgic memories

1201 Love is sweeter than wine;
Its mere thought intoxicates.

1202 Nothing better than sweet memories of love
To overcome the pain of loneliness!

1203 Is it because of my lover’s incomplete thoughts
That my sneeze passes off incomplete?

1204 No doubt my lord abides in my heart.
Do I also likewise abide in his?

1205 Having kept me out of his heart,
Is he not ashamed to enter mine?

1206 You know why I live? To live in remembrance of the days
I lived in union with him.

1207 What will happen if I forget him,
When his memory itself burns my heart?

1208 He never resents, however much I think of him.
Isn’t it an honor from my lover?

1209 My dear life wastes thinking of his cruelty;
For once he said we are not different.

1210 Hail Moon! Set not till I set my eyes on him
Who left me but not from my heart.

122 Dream remembered

1211 How shall I feast this dream which brought
A message from my lord?

1212 If only my painted eyes could sleep,
I will tell him in my dream of my true predicament.

1213 Though I miss him when I am awake,
My life lingers on as I see him in my dreams.

1214 Dreams sustain my love for in it I seek him
Who visits not while I am awake.

1215 The very sight of him is joyous.
Be it in dreams or while I am awake.

1216 Save for that thing called waking,
My dream-lover won't leave me indeed.

1217 Why does he haunt me in my dreams
When he cruelly deserts me when awake?

1218 Asleep he is round my shoulders.
Awake he hurries back to my heart.

1219 Only those starved of love dreams,
Rue missing their beloved in wakefulness.

1220 He is a deserter, people say.
But how can they see his visits in my dreams?

123 Evening sorrows

1221 Farewell, evening! You are no more just,
For you devour the souls of brides!

1222 Bless you, muddled, lack-lustre twilight!
Is your love too heartless like mine?

1223 The evening that once sighed with unease,
Now comes with growing hatred causing pain.

1224 There goes my love and in strides the evening,
Like slayers at the slaughter

1225 What good did I do to dawn?
And what harm to evening?

1226 When my love was with me, I did not know
How cruel evening could be.

1227 Budding at dawn and growing all day,
This disease blooms by evening.

1228 The cowboy’s flutes now sound as envoys of death
Forecasting the fiery evening.

1229 This place will all be dizzy and grieved
When the evening spreads and smothers me.

1230 Longing for him who left longing for wealth,
The evenings take toll of my undying soul.

124 Wasting away

Her friend to her

1231 To lift us from want, he left us afar. Brooding over him,
Your eyes now quail before flowers.

1232 The pale and tear-filled eyes seem to convey
That your lover has been unkind.

1233 Sagging shoulders that once stood firm on the bridal day
Seem to clearly point to parting.

1234 Your lord away, your think shoulders droop,
Beauty and bracelets lost.

1235 Drooping shoulders, its fading beauty
And slipping bracelets declare his cruelty.


1236 Drooping shoulders and slipping bracelets,
These I bear; to call him cruel, unbearable.

1237 Can you, O heart, gain glory by relating that cruel man
The woes of my fading shoulders?


1238 For once I relaxed my hugging arms,
This poor girl’s forehead turned pale.

1239 Cool breeze crept between our embrace;
Her large rain-cloud eyes paled at once.

1240 Seeing the once bright forehead grow pale,
Her eyes too suffered and grew pale!

125 Heart to heart

1241 My heart, can't you suggest any remedy at all
For this incurable sickness?

1242 O my heart! How foolish you are to grieve for him
Who has no love for me!

1243 O heart, what use to stay here and pine
When he who caused this sickness is heartless?

1244 Rid me of these eyes, O my heart! For they,
Longing to see him, wear my life away.

1245 O heart, can I call him a foe and dump him
Who longs not for me though I long for him?

1246 My heart that pretends to be angry will at once
Yield and jell seeing my lover.

1247 O my good heart! Either shed shame or shed love
For I cannot bear both.

1248 O my poor soul! You persist in pursuit of the departed,
Longing for his favours!

1249 Where are you searching my heart
While you know my dear one is within?

1250 To retain the deserter still in my heart
Is to suffer losing more charm.

126 Loss of modesty

1251 The axe of love can break open the door of chastity
Secured by the bolt of modesty.

1252 That pitiless thing called Love
Exploits my heart even at night.

1253 Fain would I hide my love, but it breaks out
Unawares like a sneeze.

1254 In modesty I deemed myself beyond assail;
But love has now cast away the veil.

1255 The dignity of not pursuing the indifferent
Is one thing unknown to the love-sick.

1256 What sort of passion is this that induces me
To follow the very one who deserted me?

1257 When the lover does all we desire,
We forget all shame unawares.

1258 Are not the enticing words of this wily fraud
Weapons that break my feminine reserve?

1259 Determined to sulk I went, but when my heart merged,
I too went and clasped him.

1260 Can they ever think of refusing to be reconciled,
Whose hearts melt like fat in fire?

127 Mutual longings


1261 My eyes have lost their glow and my fingers worn out
Marking the days of his absence.

1262 What if I forget him now, my bright jewel?
For it costs my beauty and armlets!

1263 He parted from me longing for conquests;
And if I live yet, it is longing for his return.

1264 The thought of reunion when my love returns
Makes my heart burgeon higher and higher.

1265 Pallor will soon disappear from my slim shoulders,
Once my eyes feast seeing him.

1266 Enough if he returns for a day,
I will gorge him till all my ills vanish.

1267 When he, dear as my eyes, returns,
Should I frown or embrace him or do both?


1268 May the king succeed in his efforts!
I can then join my wife and party in the evenings.

1269 Even a day will seem seven to those
Who long for the day of their mate’s return.

1270 To one dead of a broken heart, what avails my return,
Meeting or even embrace?

128 Sign language


1271 Even if you hide, your divulging eyes reveal
That something lurks your mind.

1272 Her eye catching beauty and bamboo shoulders
Simply enhance her feminine reserve!

1273 Something shines in her jeweled charm,
Like the thread shining in a crystal bead.

1274 Something lurks behind her half smile
Like the fragrance in a flower bud.

1275 The trickery caused by the braceleted one
Carries the medicine to cure my ills as well.


1276 The lack of love in his embrace implies that
More sufferings are in store for me.

1277 Even before I could, my bangles figured out
The immanent separation from my lord.

1278 My lord left only yesterday,
And I already have a week's pallor.

Her friend to Him

1279 She did no more than show me her loose bracelets,
Slender shoulders and swollen feet.

1280 They say a woman is most womanly
When she makes her eyes declare and plead.

129 Yearning for union

1281 To please with the thought and delight with the sight,
Belongs not to liquor but love.

1282 Where love is as large as a palm tree,
Even millet of sulk is misplaced.

1283 Let him neglect me and do what he will.
My eyes will not rest till they see him.

1284 My friend, I went all set to quarrel,
But my heart forgot and clasped him.

1285 Like eyes that can’t see the painting brush,
I don’t see his faults when I see him.

1286 When I see him I see no faults, and when I don't,
I see nothing but faults!

1287 It is folly to plunge into a known raging stream.
Likewise, why sulk and plumb known lies?

1288 The drunkard seeks wine knowing well its shame;
So does your bosom to me, O thief!

1289 Love is more delicate than flower;
Not many handle it properly.

1290 Though hostile in the eyes, she was faster than me
To break down and unite.

130 Complaint to the heart

1291 My heart! You see his heart and stand by him,
But why don’t you stand by me?

1292 My heart! Having seen his indifference,
Why do you go after him in hope?

1293 O my heart! Is it because the fallen have no friends
That you madly run after him?

1294 Who will consult you hereafter, my heart,
Having failed to sulk before yielding?

1295 Anxious of not getting, and of losing when got,
Either way my heart is always anxious.

1296 If my heart stays with me here,
It is to devour me when I am musing alone.

1297 Even modesty I have forgotten,
Due to my meek and foolish heart unable to forget him.

1298 My dear loving heart decrees, my lord is not to be shamed
And thus hails only his glory.

1299 Who will help one in distress,
When one’s own heart refuses to help?

1300 When one's own heart behaves like a stranger,
Why talk of strangers?

131 Coyness

1301 Let me feign to be angry
And see his pain of suffering for a while.

1302 Sulking is the salt of love. To prolong it
Is like salt a little too much.

She to Him

1303 To leave a sulky woman alone
Is to cause more pain to the suffering.

1304 To ignore a lady in pout is to cut
An already withering climber at its root.

He to Himself

1305 The beauty of her feigned anger has an attraction
Even for the spotlessly pure men.

1306 Without frowns and sulking,
Love is like a fruit unripe or overripe.

1307 Coyness has this one drawback.
That is the worry of delayed union.

1308 Why grieve when the lover is not there
To know whether you are grieving?

1309 Just as the refreshing water in the shade,
Pouting has its charms only between lovers.

1310 Only my desire makes my heart pine for union
With one who keeps on sulking.

132 Lovers’ quarrels


1311 I won't clasp your broad chest,
A common dish for all women's eyes to gorge!

1312 When I sulked, he sneezed: hoping
I would forget and say "Bless you".


1313 If I wear a wreath, she cries enraged:
"For which woman's sake is this?"

1314 If I say "I love you more than any one",
She frowned asking, "Than whom, than whom?"

1315 The moment I said we won’t part in this life,
Her eyes were filled with tears.

1316 "I remembered you", I said;
"After forgetting?" said she withdrawing herself!

1317 She blessed as I sneezed, but soon recalled it crying:
"Thinking whom did you sneeze?"

1318 When I suppressed my sneeze, she wept saying,
"Whom are you hiding from me?"

1319 If I try making up with her, she would ask enraged,
"Is this how you coax others as well?"

1320 If I gaze at her in silence, she would fume and ask,
"Thinking of whom this comparison?"

133 Joys of sulking


1321 Though he is not to blame, I feign sulking
To bring out the best in him.

1322 The pinpricks of sulking do not discourage
But strengthen love.

1323 Is there a heaven higher than love’s sulk
With hearts that join like earth and water?

1324 From this prolonged pout arises the weapon
To break the defence of my heart.


1325 Even for the guiltless it is a joy to forgo briefly
The shoulders from one’s clasp.

1326 More joyous than the meal is its digestion.
So is sulking more joyous than union.

1327 In lovers' quarrels the loser wins,
As shown when they make up.

1328 Will she sulk again to bring back the pleasure
Of that union drenched in sweat?

1329 May the bright-jewel sulk,
And may the night be prolonged for me to implore her!

1330 The joy of love lies in sulking, for that joy is realized
While embracing in union.

Thirukkural in English - From chapters 109 to 120

Division III. Love - From chapters 109 to 120

109 Fascination

1081 "A goddess, a rare peahen or a woman
Decked with jewels?" My heart is amazed!

1082 She returns my look with looks that strike
Like darts of an armed angel.

1083 I never knew yama before, but now I realize
That it is feminine and has warring eyes.

1084 She may have that feminine grace
But her look sucks life out of men who gaze.

1085 Is it death's dart, or eye's beams, or fawn's glance?
Her look has all these three.

1086 It’s only when her callous eyebrows bend and veil her eyes
That my heart’s flutters cease.

1087 Like the veil over the face of a rutting elephant
Is the vest that veils her buxom breasts.

1088 Ah, there goes all my might which foes dread in fight,
When I face her brows beaming bright!

1089 What use are jewels to a damsel
Adorned with modesty and meek looks of a hind?

1090 Wine delights only when imbibed,
But never at mere look like love!

110 Reading hints

1091 Her painted eyes have a double effect:
One glance brings pain and the other cures.

1092 A single sneaky glance of her eyes
Is more than half the pleasure of love.

1093 She looked, and dropped her head,
And so watered the plant of love.

1094 When I look, she looks to the ground.
When I don't, she looks and gently smiles!

1095 Without looking straight,
She passes a slanting glance and smiles.

1096 They may speak like strangers, but the words
Will soon reveal their intimacy.

1097 Words that look unfriendly and looks that look offending
Are signs of love in disguise.

1098 Her gentle smile to my pleading look
Adds beauty to her gentle nature.

1099 To look at each other as if they were strangers
Belongs to lovers alone.

1100 When eyes with eyes commingle,
What do words avail?

111 Bliss of union

1101 In her alone, my jewel, can I find the five senses of
Sight, smell, hearing, taste and touch.

1102 The cure for a disease is always different.
But this jewel is both disease and cure.

1103 Is heaven sweeter than slumbering
On the soft shoulders of the women you love?

1104 Whence did she get the fire
Which burns when far, and cools when near?

1105 Her flower-decked shoulders
Give me whatever I need, then and there.

1106 Her shoulders must verily be nectar
For they refresh my life whenever I touch.

1107 Like sharing one’s food at one’s own home
Is the embrace of this fair maid.

1108 Sweet indeed is that embrace
Wherein not a breath comes between.

1109 To fall out, make up, and unite again are the gains
Reaped by those obsessed with love.

1110 The more you indulge, the more you realize your ignorance.
Be it love or learning.

112 Expressing her charms

1111 Hail thee, aniccham, the soft flower!
The damsel I dote is softer than thee!

1112 O heart, why get distracted seeing common flowers
And match them with her eyes!

1113 She has a slender frame, pearly smile, fragrant breath,
Lancet eyes and bamboo shoulders.

1114 Unable to match the eyes of this jewel,
Lilies droop down earthwards in shame.

1115 The solemn drums will blare if her waist is crushed
By the aniccham she wore with its stalk.

1116 The perplexed stars are all over the place,
Unable to tell the moon from her face.

1117 Are there spots on my love’s face
Like the spots on the shining moon?

1118 Hail O moon! If you could also shine as my love’s face,
You too I shall love.

1119 O moon, if you imitate my flower-eyed jewel’s face,
Stop revealing thyself to all.

1120 Even aniccham flower and swan's down
Are as nerunji fruit to my maidens’ feet.

113 Excellence of love


1121 Like a mixture of milk and honey,
Is the drool that drips through her pearly teeth.

1122 The bond between me and this damsel
Is like the union of body and soul.

1123 O pupil of my eye! Be gone,
For there is no place for the maiden I love.

1124 Life is lively when she is around,
But dreadful when she leaves.

1125 Recollection is needed if only I forget.
How can I forget her dazzling warring eyes!


1126 So subtle is my lover’s form that he neither leaves my eyes
Nor is he hurt when I wink.

1127 I will not paint my eyes and so lose
Even for a trice the sight of my love.

1128 I dare not swallow anything hot
Lest it hurt my lover within me!

1129 My eyes don’t close for fear of losing him.
Seeing this, folks blame him for desertion.

1130 He dwells gladly forever in my heart.
And the folks say he is loveless and has left me.

114 Abandonment of reserve

1131 Those that enjoyed love and now mourn in affliction
Have nothing but the madal for strength.

1132 Away with shame! Soul and body can bear no more,
And will mount the madal.

1133 Modesty and manliness once I owned,
But now only the madal ridden by the lustful.

1134 Alas, the raft of modesty and manliness is swept away
By the rushing tide of lust!

1135 The maiden with her armlets of garland
Gave me the madal and the pangs of eventide.

1136 Even at midnight I think of riding the madal,
Unable to close my eyes because of her.

1137 Nothing grandeur than women! Their love may rage like sea,
Yet don’t mount the madal!

1138 Pitiless love with no regard for modesty,
Betrays itself to reveal the secrets public.

1139 Perplexed is my passion that it roves in public
With complaints of being unnoticed.

1140 Fools laugh so as to be seen by us,
Not having endured what we have.

115 Spreading romours

1141 Rumours revive hope; Those that spread them
Luckily don't know this.

1142 Rumours have gifted me this flowery-eyed belle;
The public know not her preciousness.

1143 Should I not welcome their rumours
Which give that feel of owning whom I own not?

1144 Rumours enhance my love which might have
Otherwise waned losing its power.

1145 Wine delights with every sip.
So does love with every disclosure.

1146 Our meeting was but for a day, but the outcry is
As if a serpent has swallowed the moon.

1147 The village gossip manures my love,
And my mother's reproaches water it.

1148 To suppress love with scandal
Is to put fire out with ghee!

1149 He who said “fear not” has flared up rumour.
Why then should I blush for this outcry?

1150 This village gossip is what we desire,
For it serves the desire of my lover.

116 Sufferings of separation

1151 Tell me if you are not leaving. Bid farewell to those
Who can survive to see your return.

1152 His mere look was once a delight; but now
Even his embrace saddens, fearing separation.

1153 How hard it is to trust when even he who knows
Breaks his word and goes!

1154 How can I be blamed for trusting one
Who left me after assuring “fear not”?

1155 If you would serve me, stop him going.
Gone we shall not meet again.

1156 When he is stubborn to announce separation,
It is futile to hope for reunion.

1157 Do not the bangles sliding down my arms
Forebode the departure of my lord?

1158 It is bitter to live among strangers.
Bitter still is to part with one's love.

1159 Can fire, which hurts when touched,
Hurt like the passion of love even untouched?

1160 Strange how many can bear separation,
Survive sorrow, and live!

117 Love sickness

1161 I would hide this sickness, but it wells up
Like water drawn from a spring.

1162 Hide this sickness, I cannot.
To tell him who caused it, I am ashamed.

1163 Love and shame hang poised on my life.
My body unable to bear them.

1164 There is indeed a flood of lust;
But no safe raft to swim across it.

1165 If his friendship can bring so much misery,
How will it be in enmity?

1166 The pleasure of love is as vast as the sea.
Vaster still is the sorrow of its hurt.

1167 Whirling in the stormy sea of love, I find no shore;
Even at midnight I am alone.

1168 Poor night, putting all things to sleep,
Has only me for company.

1169 Even crueler than my cruel lord
Are the long nights of these days.

1170 If eyes could also reach him like the heart,
They won’t be swimming in a flood of tears.

118 Languishing eyes

1171 Why the same eyes that showed him to me
And caused this fever, now cry in anguish?

1172 Why do these eyes, once thoughtlessly looked at him,
Now not repent but grieve?

1173 Funny the very same eyes that once
Eagerly looked at him are now in tears!

1174 Having driven me to this incurable fever,
My eyes have dried up, drained of all tears.

1175 My eyes plunged me in a raging sea of love
And for this must suffer sleepless pain.

1176 How nice! The eyes that caused this torment
Are themselves tormented.

1177 Let tears dry up pining and pining in the eyes
That eyed him longing and longing.

1178 He made love with words, not with heart.
Yet my eyes pine, seeing him not.

1179 Sleepless when he is not here, sleepless when he is,
Either way my eyes never rest.

1180 With eyes that drum up and declare my grief,
It is hard to conceal secrets from these folks!

119 The hues of pallor

1181 Having agreed to part my love,
How can I complain of my pallor to others?

1182 Claiming that it begot through him,
Pallor creeps over my body with pride.

1183 He robbed me first of my beauty and shame,
And gave in exchange sickness and pallor.

1184 His words I recollect and prowess I chant.
Yet, how does pallor sneak in?

1185 There goes my lover and here comes the pallor
To creep over my body.

1186 Darkness lies in wait for the lamp to go out,
And pallor for the embrace to break.

1187 Locked in embrace, I turned a little.
Seizing that moment, pallor seized me in full.

1188 "Pallid has she become” blame everyone,
But none say “He parted her”.

1189 If my lord who left me remains free of guilt,
My pallor is worth all the grief.

1190 I don’t mind being called pallid, so long as
They don’t blame him for causing it.

120 Torture of loneliness

1191 Only those blessed with the love of being loved
Are blessed with the seedless fruit of love.

1192 Like the heavenly showers to living men
Is the blessing of grace by lovers to their beloved.

1193 They alone can have the pride of living together
Who are loved by their beloved.

1194 Even if loved by others, they are luckless
Unless loved by those they love.

1195 What more can I expect of my lord
If he does not love me as much as I love him?

1196 One-sided love pains like lopsided kavadi.
It is sweet only when shared by both sides.

1197 Can't the god of Love, lodged in me alone
Causing distress, see my pallor and pain?

1198 Hard is the heart that can survive this world
Without a word of love from the beloved.

1199 Though my beloved bestows nothing,
Still any news about him is sweet to my ears.

1200 O heart, why pour your concerns to the unconcerned?
As well dump into the sea!