1.Ratio : The ratio of two qualities a and b in the same units, is the fraction a/b and we write it as a:b.
In the ratio, a:b, we call as the first term of antecedent and b, the second term consequent.
Ex: The ratio 5:9 represents 5/9 with antecedent=5 ,consequent=9
Rule: The multiplication or division of each term of 9 ratio by the same non-zero number does not affect the ratio.
Proportion: The equality of two ratios is called proportion. If a:b=c:d, we write a:b::c:d and we say that a,b,c and d are in proportion. Here a and b are called extremes, while b and c are called mean terms.
Product of means=product of extremes
Thus, a:b::c:d => (b*c)=(a*d)
Fourth proportional: If a:b::c:d, then d is called the fourth proportional to a,b and c.
Third proportional: If a:b::b:c, then c is called third proportional to a and b.
Mean proportional: Mean proportional between a and b is SQRT(a*b).
COMPARISION OF RATIOS:
We say that (a:b)>(c:d) => (a/b)>(c/d)
Compounded ratio: The compounded ratio of the ratios (a:b), (c:d),(e:f) is (ace:bdf).
Duplicate Ratio: If (a:b) is (a2: b2 )
Sub-duplicate ratio of (a:b) is (SQRT(a):SQRT(b))
Triplicate ratio of (a:b) is (a3: b3 )
Sub-triplicate ratio of (a:b) is (a1/3: b1/3 ).
If a/b=c/d, then (a+b)/(a-b)=(c+d)/(c-d) (componend o and dividend o)
we say that x is directly proportional to y, if x=ky for some constant k and we write.
We say that x is inversely proportional to y, if xy=k for some constant and we write.
X is inversely proportional to y.
If a/b=c/d=e/f=g/h=k then
If a1/b1,a2/b2, a3/b3..............an/bn are unequal
fractions then the ratio.